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"To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge's collection of thousands of e Books please go to Bookstore.uk." All rights reserved. - (Routledge essential grammars) Includes bibliographical references and index. Part II which deals with language functions was largely inspired by National Curriculum guidelines for other languages. 188.8.131.52 If the relative superlative is used: o melhor, o pior, o maior, o O pior castigo e a prisao perpetua. 4 Adjectives 184.108.40.206 With figurative meaning: urn grande homem a great man uma pobre mulher an unfortunate woman urn velho amigo an old friend (of many years) 220.127.116.11 Sometimes we can place an adjective before the noun in order to add other adjectives after it, and thus avoid a long monotonous list of adjectives: uma excelente escola profissional an excellent training school Note: When combining a series of adjectives, start with the more general and finish with the more particular: Eles vivem num casarao enorme, velho, feio e frio. Pronouns Personal pronouns There are five types of personal pronouns in Portuguese: • subject pronouns; • direct object pronouns; • indirect object pronouns; • prepositional pronouns; • reflexive pronouns.
No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. In this way, we have also endeavoured to address the needs of teachers of Portuguese in secondary education. 5.1.1 Subject pronouns* eu I nos we tu, voce 1 you (vos), voces' you ele, ela he, she eles, elas they Voce and voces are forms of address and not pronouns, but they are often used as subject pronouns, especially in Brazilian Portuguese.
Hutchinson and Janet Lloyd Also available as a printed book see title verso for ISBN details Portuguese An Essential Grammar Second Edition This new edition of Portuguese: An Essential Grammar is a practical refer- ence guide to the most important aspects of modern Portuguese. a 121 11.6 Proximo/seguinte 122 11.7 Tao/tanto 122 11.8 Affirmative/negative 123 11.9 Ainda/ja 123 11.10 Prepositions of time 124 11.11 Prepositions with means of transport 124 11.12 Word order 125 11.13 Ser/estar 128 PART II: LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS Chapter 12 Socializing 12.1 General greetings 12.2 Taking leave 12.3 Greeting/taking leave according to time of day 12.4 Attracting attention 12.5 Seasonal greetings 12.6 Personal greetings 12.7 Congratulations 12.8 Good wishes 12.9 Introductions 12.10 Forms of address 12.11 Talking about one's health 12.12 Places and locations 12.13 Talking about the weather 131 133 133 134 135 136 138 138 138 139 139 140 144 146 148 Chapter 13 Exchanging factual information 151 13.1 Identifying people 151 13.2 Identifying things 154 13.3 Asking for information 155 13.4 Reporting, describing and narrating 157 13.5 Letter writing 160 13.6 Correcting assumptions 163 Chapter 1 4 Getting things done 1 65 14.1 Suggesting a course of action 165 14.2 Offering to do something 166 14.3 Requesting others to do something 166 14.4 Inviting others to do something 167 14.5 Asking for and giving advice 167 14.6 Warning others 168 14.7 Instructing others to do/not to do something 169 14.8 Requesting assistance 170 14.9 Stating and finding out whether something is compulsory 171 14.10 Seeking, giving, refusing permission 172 14.11 Expressing and finding out about need 14.12 Enquiring and expressing intention, want or desire 172 173 Chapter 1 5 Finding out and expressing intellectual attitudes 1 75 15.1 Agreement and disagreement 175 15.2 Knowing something or someone 177 15.3 Remembering something or someone 178 15.4 Possibility and impossibility 179 15.5 Logical conclusions 181 15.6 Incomprehension and clarification 182 15.7 Certainty and uncertainty 183 Chapter 16 Judgement and evaluation 185 16.1 Expressing pleasure or liking 185 16.2 Expressing displeasure or dislike 186 16.3 Enquiring about pleasure/displeasure, liking/dislike 187 16.4 Enquiring about and expressing interest/lack of interest 188 16.5 Expressing surprise 189 16.6 Expressing hope 190 16.7 Enquiring about and expressing satisfaction/ dissatisfaction 191 16.8 Expressing disappointment 192 16.9 Enquiring about and expressing worry or fear 192 16.10 Enquiring about and expressing preference 194 16.11 Expressing gratitude 194 16.12 Expressing sympathy 195 16.13 Expressing happiness and unhappiness 196 16.14 Apologizing 196 16.15 Enquiring about and expressing approval/disapproval 197 16.16 Expressing appreciation 198 16.17 Expressing regret 199 16.18 Expressing indifference 200 16.19 Accusing 200 16.20 Enquiring about and expressing capability/ incapability 201 PART III: BRAZILIAN VARIANTS 203 Chapter 17 Brazilian essential grammar and o language functions 205 Chapter Bl Pronunciation and spelling 206 Bl.l Vowels 208 Bl.1.1 Oral vowels 208 B1.2 Consonants 209 B1.3 Diphthongs 209 Bl.3.2 Nasal diphthongs 209 Chapter B2 Nouns 210 B2.4 Diminutives and augmentatives 210 B2.4.1 Diminutives 210 B2.4.3 Preferred diminutives 210 Chapter B3 Articles 21 1 B3.2 Use of the definite article 211 B3.2.1 With first names 211 B3.2.2 With titles 211 B3.2.5 Before possessive adjectives 211 Chapter B4 Adjectives 212 B18.104.22.168 Adjectives ending in -eu 212 B4.3 Degree 212 B4.3.1 The comparative 212 B4.3.3 Special comparative and superlative forms 212 Chanter B5 Pmnnunc 213 B5.1 Personal pronouns 213 B5.1.1 Subject pronouns 213 B5.1.2 Direct object pronouns 213 B5.1.3 Indirect object pronouns 215 B5.1.5 Prepositional pronouns 215 B5.1.6 Reflexive pronouns 216 B5.2 Possessive pronouns and adjectives 216 B5.2.1 Possessive adjectives 217 B5.2.2 Possessive pronouns 217 Chapter B6 Numerals 2 1 8 B6.1 Cardinal, ordinal and multiplicative numbers 218 Chapter B7 Verbs 219 B7.4 Imperative mood 219 B7.4.1 Conjugation 219 B7.6 Present participle 219 B7.12 Reflexive verbs 219 Chapter B 1 0 Prepositions 22 1 B10.4 Verbs followed by a preposition 221 Chapter B I I Additional notes on Brazilian Portuguese usage 222 Bll.l Gente/agente 222 B11.4 A/para 222 B 11.11 Prepositions with means of transport 222 B11.12 Word order 223 Bl 1.12.1 Pronouns and verbs 223 Bll.12.5 Adverbs 223 Chapter B 1 2 Socializing 224 B12.1 General greetings 224 B12.1.1 Informal 224 B12.2 Taking leave 224 B12.2.1 Informal 224 B12.2.2 More formal farewells, figurative 225 B12.4 Attracting attention 225 B12.4.3 Call for help 225 B12.10 Forms of address 225 B12.10.2 Less informal 226 B12.10.3 Formal 227 B12.10.4 Titles 227 B12.10.5 Family 228 B12Talking about one's health 228 B12
It presents a fresh and accessible description of the language that combines traditional and function-based grammar. 1 In small talk and greetings 228 B12.12.4 Place of residence and addresses 229 B12.13 Talking about the weather 229 v^napier d i j cxcnanging Tactual in Torrnarion lift B13.1 Identifying people 230 B13.1.4 Profession, occupation 230 B13.3 Asking for information 230 B13.5 Letter writing 231 B13.5.1 Dates 231 B13.5.2 Opening formulas 231 VJc LLIIIg Llllllga UUIIc B14.4 Inviting others to do something 232 B14.8 Requesting assistance 232 B14.12 Enquiring about and expressing intention, want or desire 233 Chapter BI5 Finding out about and expressing intellectual attitudes 234 B15.6 Incomprehension and clarification 234 B15.7 Certainty and uncertainty 234 cndpicr D 1 O juugei Tieni chili cvaiua LUJii B16.2 Expressing displeasure or dislike 235 B16.5 Expressing surprise 235 B16.6 Expressing hope 235 B16.14 Apologizing 236 B16.17 Expressing regret 236 ii PART IV: HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL NOTES 237 Chapter 18 The Portuguese language and the cultures of the Portuguese-speaking world 239 18.1 Portuguese: an international language 239 18.1.1 Portuguese as an official language 239 18.1.2 Variants of Portuguese 240 18.2 The origins of Portuguese 241 18.3 Portuguese: cultural expressions 243 18.3.1 Literature 243 18.3.2 Music 244 18.3.3 Cinema 248 18.4 Internet resources 251 Bibliography Index 253 255 Foreword to the first edition The aim of this work is to offer the student of Portuguese a succinct and reasonably comprehensive overview of Portuguese grammar.
In this part, our aim was to present a series of short, self-contained dialogues which not only illustrate language func- tions but also provide the student and the teacher with useful source texts. Note: Although uns and umas can be considered the plural of the indef- inite article, the true plural of a noun indefinite article in Portuguese is that noun in its plural form, standing alone.
The dialogues may be developed in a number of ways, of which we suggest: (a) role-play; (b) a starting-point for development of narrative skills; (c) grammatical analysis; (d) comprehension exercises. pi.) umas (fern, pi.) um jardim uma escova uns discos umas praias a garden a brush some/a few records some/a few beaches The indefinite article, which corresponds to the English forms 'a', 'an' and 'some', is used to designate non-specific nouns, with which it agrees in gender and number. Uns and umas actually convey the meaning of 'some' or alguns/algumas, as opposed to 'others', outros/ outras.
Hutchinson is now Supervisor for Portuguese Language at the University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. Use of the indefinite article Use of the indefinite 3.6.1 To relate someone to a famous personality: article Ele nao e propriamente um Camoes, mas escreve poemas belissimos. 3.6.4 When it means 'a pair', 'about' or 'such': umas calcas e uns sapatos a pair of trousers and a pair of shoes Ficaram feridos uns quarenta homens.
It was only the team spirit that we all share and the progress of technology that made our work possible. He is not exactly a Camoes, but he writes beautiful poems.
Our logistics have become considerably complicated since our first edition.
Finally, a word of thanks to Sophie Oliver, our editor, for her enthusiasm, patience and understanding, giving a large publishing house like Routledge a human dimension that made our work a pleasure to accomplish. Hutchinson Janet Lloyd 19 January 2003 How to use this book Part I covers the fundamental aspects of Portuguese grammar and is intended for reference and illustrative use. 3.6.2 To indicate someone we do not know very well (could imply disparaging tone): Quern ganhou o concurso foi um Rui Sa. 3.6.3 To indicate a piece of work by a famous person (usually a painter): O Andre comprou um Vieira da Silva muito valioso.
Part II covers a wide range of language functions to assist students in putting grammar into context.
We have added Part IV, which contains cultural notes on the origins of Portuguese, its role as an international language, and its use in forms of artistic expression such as literature, music and film. Their objective is merely to offer the reader a taster of Portuguese as a living language, and an instrument of linguistic and artistic communication for nearly two hundred million native speakers scattered around the world. em uns = nuns O artigo usa-se nuns casos e omite-se noutros. Although this use is possible, it should be avoided in of the educated written Portuguese. 22.214.171.124 Most adjectives ending in -ao change into -oes, a few into -aes and even fewer into -aos (see 2.3.3): espertalhao espertalhoes cunning alemao alemaes German sao saos healthy 126.96.36.199 Adjectives ending in -m change into -ns (see 2.3.4): comum comuns common 4.2.
In all other regards, our objectives are the same as stated in the first edition. 3.7.2 When making a generalization: O hotel estava cheio de belgas e alemaes. Contraction of the indefinite article 3.8.1 The indefinite article can be combined with the prepositions em and de. The article is used in some cases and omitted in others. indefinite de urn = dum o filho dum carpinteiro the son of a carpenter de uma = duma a filha duma amiga the daughter of a friend de uns = duns Preciso duns oculos. 1 .5 Adjectives ending in -al, -el, -ol and -ul change into -ais, -eis, -ois and -uis (see 2.3.5): leal leais loyal cruel crueis cruel espanhol espanhois Spanish azul azuis blue 4.2.
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Any speaker can have control over the variant of Portuguese that he/she wishes to use, but that control cannot be exercised over their interlocutors, hence the need to be prepared to meet the challenges posed by speakers from all corners of the Portuguese diaspora. 1 As a rule, adjectives have a feminine form in -a (especially adjec- tives ending in -o, -es, -or and -u): magro magra ingles inglesa encantador encantadora nu nua thin English (man/woman) charming naked But some adjectives ending in -or have the same form for both the mascu- line and the feminine: anterior posterior incolor anterior posterior colourless bicolor interior exterior bicolour interior exterior And the same happens with the comparative form of adjectives: maior bigger inferior inferior menor smaller melhor better superior superior pior worse 4. 1 .2 Adjectives ending in -eu have a feminine form in -eia: europeu europeia B European ateu ateia atheist But judeu judia Jewish 4. 1 .3 Adjectives ending in -ao can have feminine forms in -a, -oa or -ona: alemao alema German beirao beiroa native of Beira (Portugal) brincalhao brincalhona playful 4.1.2 However, most adjectives ending in -a, -e, -ar, -1, -m, -s and -z in the masculine keep the same form in the feminine: hipocrita hypocritical original original pessimista pessimist principal main homicida homicidal rural rural agncola agricultural sensi'vel sensitive careca bald temvel terrible possfvel possible doce sweet cruel cruel verde green amavel kind forte strong facil easy pobre poor util useful triste sad imbecil idiotic grande big dificil difficult brilhante brilliant gentil charming/kind quente hot azul blue 4 Adjectives doente prudente regular vulgar simples reles prudent regular ordinary simple vulgar ruim comun jovem capaz veloz feliz bad/wicked common young capable fast happy But espanhol (masc.)/espanhola (fern.) 4.1.3 Some adjectives have irregular feminine forms: bom boa good mau ma bad 4.1.4 In compound adjectives only the second element takes the femi- nine form: luso-britanico luso-britanica Anglo-Portuguese But surdo-mudo surda-muda deaf-mute m 4.2.1 Number In matters of number, adjectives tend to follow the same rules as nouns (see 2.3).